Cultural itinerary: The route of the cacao: Trade of the cacao in Venezuela, transformation of a territory

Daly Schelbert, Carmen (2005) Cultural itinerary: The route of the cacao: Trade of the cacao in Venezuela, transformation of a territory. In: 15th ICOMOS General Assembly and International Symposium: ‘Monuments and sites in their setting - conserving cultural heritage in changing townscapes and landscapes’, 17 – 21 oct 2005, Xi'an, China. [Conference or Workshop Item]


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Abstract (in English)

In The Pre-Hispanic America, The Aztec named it “Xocolatl” “The drink of Gods”. In South America, the first registered reference of the cocoa’s fruit was at the General Office of the harbor Master in Venezuela on 1579. Rodrigo de Arguelles and Gaspar de Parraga mentioned “The possibility to transport this fruits to Spain”. There is a reference in the year 1602, of 10.000 plants of cocoa to be located close to the Maracaibo Lake. This area was populated by the “Cuicas” Indians who used the cocoa for ceremonies. They named the drink “Chorote” after the toasted and grinding seed. The Cocoa became one of the most market products in Europe and America. Since 1607, there is a reference regarding the exportation of this fruit. In 1631, there are registers showed about 2.000 “fanegas” of cocoa exported mostly to México and Spain. Between the XVII and XVIII century, the cocoas market was introduced to the most important maritime-commercial routes of the region. A very important maritime traffic was established among the consumer and producer Countries of the fruit. The Cocoa production in Venezuela generated a transformation of the landscape and the creation of new population centers, the construction of a new substructure and services like irrigation systems, roads, system of supports and ports. The commercial exchange left deep Cultural treads in the countries who participated on this process. On the other hand, the use of the African slaves to take care of the plantations generated a mix of cultures between the African and local traditions which remain nowadays. The Cultural Itinerary that was generated by the cocoas market among these 3 countries is showed these days in the transcendence of the humanity heritage into our culture

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Daly Schelbert, Carmen
Languages: English
Keywords: cultural route; trade route; cacao; historical survey
Subjects: H. HERITAGE TYPOLOGIES > 07. Cultural routes
Name of monument, town, site, museum: Route of the cacao, Venezuela
ICOMOS Special Collection: Scientific Symposium (ICOMOS General Assemblies)
ICOMOS Special Collection Volume: 2005, 15th
Depositing User: Jose Garcia
Date Deposited: 01 Dec 2010 15:25
Last Modified: 29 Aug 2023 14:42
References: 1.ARCILA, FARIAS: “Comercio entre Venezuela y México en los siglos XVII y XVIII. ARCILA FARÍAS, EDUARDO. «Comercio del cacao en el siglo XVII». EN: Revista Nacional de Cultura. Caracas, núm. 43, marzo-abril, 1944; BOTELLO OLDMAN: “Historia del estado Aragua. Academia Nacional de la Historia. Caracas, 1995. PALMA, MANUEL. «Algunas notas sobre el cultivo del cacao en Venezuela». EN: El Agricultor Venezolano. Caracas, núm. 133, enero-marzo, 1949.

2.COMPAÑÍA GUIPUZCOANA DE CARACAS. Relación de la Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas: noticias historiales prácticas... [Madrid]: La Compañía, 1765; GASPARINI, GRAZIANO. «Edificios de la Real Compañía Guipuzcoana en Venezuela». EN: Los vascos y América. Bilbao: Fundación Banco de Vizcaya-Banco Bilbao Vizcaya, 1989; LOVERA, JOSE RAFAEL: “El Cacao en Venezuela, una historia”. Editado por Chocolates El Rey. Caracas, 2000. MORÓN, GUILLERMO. «La provincia de Venezuela en el siglo XVIII y la Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas». EN: Boletín de la Academia Nacional de la Historia. Caracas, núm. 284, octubre-diciembre, 1988. VIVAS, GERARDO. «La Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas: los buques y sus hombres». EN: Los vascos y América. Bilbao: Fundación Banco de Vizcaya-Banco Bilbao Vizcaya, 1989; NÚÑEZ, ENRIQUE BERNARDO. Cacao. Caracas: Banco Central de Venezuela, 1972; PÉREZ ARVELÁEZ, ENRIQUE. Manual del cacaotero venezolano. Caracas: Cooperativa de Artes Gráficas, 1937; RIVAS, LUIS M. Producción de cacao. Caracas: Ediciones Iesa, 1994.

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