An approach for defining, assessment and documentation of cultural heritage on multi-layered cities, case of Bergama (Pergamon) - Turkey
Binan, Demet Ulusoy and Binan, Can Sakir (2005) An approach for defining, assessment and documentation of cultural heritage on multi-layered cities, case of Bergama (Pergamon) - Turkey. In: 15th ICOMOS General Assembly and International Symposium: ‘Monuments and sites in their setting - conserving cultural heritage in changing townscapes and landscapes’, 17 – 21 oct 2005, Xi'an, China. [Conference or Workshop Item]
Abstract (in English)
The Bergama City that is the subject of research is a town within Turkey borders connected to Izmir province. Bergama is a multi-layered Anatolian city that contains a historical layering belonging to Helenistic, Roman, Byzantian, Karesi Principality, Ottoman and Turkish Republican periods. Bergama that had been called as Pergamon during ancient ages, has been established as a city surrounded by high walls dated from BC 7th or 6th centuries upon Kent Mountain that reaches an approximate height of 330 meters. Bergama that is one of the cultural gates to Anatolian civilization history is an important centre for Mediterranean civilization as the first place where Parchment had been used and that had a library comparable with Alexandria Library. Dating from 14th century, a traditional Ottoman urban fabric that consisted of organic shaped land groups surrounded with dead end roads has been developed on ancient urban fabric with grid plans. Bergama City is a solid example that shows the mistakes in the definition and assessment of cultural heritage can lead to the destruction of cultural assets. Digs have been started at the districts surrounding the traditional urban fabric of the ancient city since the end of 19th period and the conservation of ancient buildings has gained importance. The same approach of conservation has not been used for the traditional urban fabric consisting of traditional houses, the oldest of which was dated from the 18th century. With the urban plan of 1968, traditional urban fabric has been highly damaged as a result of the destruction of traditional houses that should be conserved and were located on the route of large roads that were opened to make transportation easier and passed close to archeological buildings. On the other hand, a decision about freezing the existing traditional settling district and creation of new development areas for new buildings has been taken in order that the ancient city under traditional urban fabric would not be damaged. That decision has provided the survival of traditional urban fabric today by keeping its authenticity. The traditional urban fabric in Bergama that should be conserved was classified as Urban Archeological Site in 1984 . In Bergama city that consisted of archeological sites and urban archeological site, an inventory work on cultural heritage has been going on since 2003. With the Turkish Cultural Inventory Project carried out by Turkish Academy of Science - Turkish Cultural Sector (TÜBA-TÜKSEK), the discovery and documentation of the whole cultural heritage within Turkey in a common format has been provided. The definition, assessment and documentation criteria in the inventory of cultural heritage performed today in Bergama city that is a solid example that shows the mistakes in the definition and assessment of cultural heritage can lead to the destruction of cultural assets shall be put forward. A solid examination shall be made about how the static structure of archeological characteristics and dynamic structure of urban characteristics in Urban Archeological Sites have been defined, assessed and documented within the example of Bergama.
|Item Type:||Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)|
|Keywords:||historic town; urban development; urban fabric; urban archaeology; urban archaeological sites; archaeological excavations; documentation; assessment; inventory|
|Subjects:||D.URBANISM > 02. Urban planning
F.SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGIES OF CONSERVATION > 58. Urban fabric analysis
B. ARCHAEOLOGY > 06. Urban archaeological site
H.HERITAGE TYPOLOGIES > 12. Historic towns and villages
|Name of monument, town, site, museum:||Bergama (Pergamon), Turkey|
|ICOMOS Special Collection:||Scientific Symposium (ICOMOS General Assemblies)|
|ICOMOS Special Collection Volume:||2005, 15th|
|Depositing User:||Jose Garcia|
|Date Deposited:||27 Oct 2010 11:07|
|Last Modified:||13 Jan 2011 19:14|
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