Heritage, Conflict and Reconstructions: From Reconstructing Monuments to Reconstructing Societies

Aljawabra, Alkindi (2018) Heritage, Conflict and Reconstructions: From Reconstructing Monuments to Reconstructing Societies. ICOMOS University Forum, 1 . pp. 1-18. ISSN 2616-6968 [Article] (Unpublished)

180825_Aljawabra_ICOMOS Article_with images.pdf
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

Download (1MB) | Preview

Abstract (in English)

This paper reflects on the arguments that heritage should be more about people than heritage sites and objects and that the heritage community’s efforts in conflict contexts should be less about preservation and more about embracing change and finding creative ways to adapt. The paper is focused on Syria and it is based on an ongoing PhD research project that seeks to investigate new approaches to the questions of heritage and culture in conflict contexts. Specifically, the paper maintains that what is urgently needed today is to investigate and develop creative heritage practices that can: tackle issues that matter to the conflict-affected communities; improve the quality of their life; and increase their horizons of hope and opportunities in assembling better futures. In particular, the paper reviews the role of heritage in the society and how this heritage is understood, practiced and experienced by people. Also, the paper investigates how this heritage is approached by non-state actors in Syria—such as ‘civil society’ groups (CSGs) and the newly emerged extremist religious groups (ERGs)—and suggests that their efforts are designed to reconstruct people, their societies and their heritage as an undivided whole. The paper argues that the utilization of heritage by grassroots ‘civil society’ groups in Syria offer examples of people-centered, socially innovative and future oriented heritage practices that are truly concerned about future generations and can positively contribute to the re-building of the society by participating in managing the transformation process from a pre-conflict society to post-conflict society.

Item Type: Article
Aljawabra, Alkindi
Languages: English
Keywords: Armed confflicts; reconstruction; post-disaster situation; intangible heritage; social aspects; community participation; values; memory; cultural significance; cultural identity; Interpretation; destruction of cultural heritage; censorship; islamic extremism; Civil society; Associations; poetry; music; dance; public awareness; education; children; Syria; Yemen
Subjects: A. THEORETICAL AND GENERAL ASPECTS > 12. Theory of restoration
E.CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION > 09. Social and economic aspects of conservation
H.HERITAGE TYPOLOGIES > 17. Intangible cultural heritage
Name of monument, town, site, museum: Olive Branch
Volume: 1
Number of Pages: 18
ISSN: 2616-6968
Depositing User: intern icomos
Date Deposited: 20 Sep 2018 10:16
Last Modified: 20 Sep 2018 10:16
References: Abu-Lughod, Lila. 2005. “Writing Against Culture.” In Anthropology in Theory: Issues in Epistemology, edited by Henrietta L. Moore & Todd Sanders, 466–79. John Wiley & Sons.

Abu-Rabiʻ, Ibrahim M. 2004. Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-1967 Arab Intellectual History. Pluto Press.

Ahmed, Lobna Abdel Aziz, and Samah M. El-Khatee. 2012. “Change of Local Culture after the 25th Revolution and Its Impact on Environmental Awareness.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, AcE-Bs 2012 Bangkok, Sukosol Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand, 16-18 July, 2012, 50: 997–1017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.08.101.

Al Quntar, Salam, and Brian I. Daniels. 2016. “Responses to the Destruction of Syrian Cultural Heritage: A Critical Review of Current Efforts.” International Journal of Islamic Architecture 5 (2): 381–97. https://doi.org/10.1386/ijia.5.2.381_1.

Aljabri, Mohammed Abed, and Farid Abdel Nour. 2011. “The Problematic of Authenticity and Contemporaneity in Modern and Contemporary Arab Thought.” Contemporary Arab Affairs 4 (2): 174–89. https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2011.569179.

Amineddoleh, Leila Alexandra. 2016. “Cultural Heritage Vandalism and Looting: The Role of Terrorist Organizations, Public Institutions and Private Collectors.” Public Institutions and Private Collectors (March 2016).

Andraos, Amale. 2015. Opening Remarks for: Culture and Heritage After Palmyra, Interdisciplinary Discussion. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kLm3Uf6Xtvc.

Appadurai, Arjun. 2004. “The Capacity to Aspire.” In Culture and Public Action, 59–84.

Ashworth, Gregory John. 2008. “The Memorialization of Violence and Tragedy: Human Trauma as Heritage.” The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity, 231–44.

Blake, Janet. 2011. “Taking a Human Rights Approach to Cultural Heritage Protection.” Heritage & Society 4 (2): 199–238. https://doi.org/10.1179/hso.2011.4.2.199.

Bojicic´-Dzelilovic´, Vesna. 2002. “World Bank, NGOs and the Private Sector in Post-War Reconstruction.” International Peacekeeping 9 (2): 81–98. https://doi.org/10.1080/714002724.

Boullata, Issa J. 1990. Trends and Issues in Contemporary Arab Thought. State University of New York Press.

Browers, Michaelle. 2015. “From ‘New Partisans of the Heritage’ to Post-Secularism.” In Arab Liberal Thought after 1967, edited by Meir Hatina and Christoph Schumann, 135–51. Palgrave Macmillan US. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137551412_8.

Caris, Charles C, and Samuel Reynolds. 2014. “ISIS Governance in Syria.” 22. Middle East Security Report. Washington, Dc 20036: Institute for the Study of War. http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/ISIS_Governance.pdf.

De Cesari, Chiara. 2015. “POST‐COLONIAL RUINS: Archaeologies of Political Violence and IS.” Anthropology Today 31 (6): 22–26.

De Cesari, Chiara, and Michael Herzfeld. 2015. “Urban Heritage and Social Movements.” Blackwell Readers in Anthropology.

Faris, Hani A. 1986. “Heritage and Ideologies in Contemporary Arab Thought: Contrasting Views of Change and Development.” In The Arab World: Dynamics and Development, edited by Baha Abu-Laban and Sharon MacIrvin Abu-Laban. BRILL.

Fibiger, Thomas. 2015. “Heritage Erasure and Heritage Transformation: How Heritage Is Created by Destruction in Bahrain.” International Journal of Heritage Studies 21 (4): 390–404. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2014.930064.

Fisher, William F. 1997. “DOING GOOD? The Politics and Antipolitics of NGO Practices.” Annual Review of Anthropology 26 (1): 439–64. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.26.1.439.

Giblin, John. 2015. “Critical Approaches to Post-Colonial (Post-Conflict) Heritage.” In The Palgrave Handbook of Contemporary Heritage Research, 313–28. Springer.

Gornik, Vivian. 2015. “Can UNESCO Do More to Counter Terrorists’ Destruction of World Heritage?” Present Pasts 6 (1).

Haraway, Donna. 1988. “Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective.” Feminist Studies, 575–99.

Harmanşah, Ömür. 2015. “ISIS, Heritage, and the Spectacles of Destruction in the Global Media.” Near Eastern Archaeology 78 (3): 170–77. https://doi.org/10.5615/neareastarch.78.3.0170.

Harrison, Rodney. 2010. “Heritage as Social Action.” In Understanding Heritage in Practice, edited by Susie West. Manchester University Press.

———. 2013. Heritage: Critical Approaches. Routledge.

Harvey, David. 2001. “Heritage Pasts and Heritage Presents: Temporality, Meaning and the Scope of Heritage Studies.” International Journal of Heritage Studies 7 (4): 319–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/13581650120105534.

Harvey, David, and Jim Perry. 2015. “Heritage and Climate Change: The Future Is Not the Past.” In The Future of Heritage as Climates Change: Loss, Adaptation and Creativity, 3–23. Routledge.

Hegghammer, Thomas. 2015. “Why Terrorists Weep: The Socio-Cultural Practices of Jihadi Militants.” Paul Wilkinson Memorial Lecture, University of St. Andrews. http://hegghammer.com/_files/Hegghammer_-_Wilkinson_Memorial_Lecture.pdf.

———. 2017. Jihadi Culture. Cambridge University Press.

Higueras, Alvaro. 2013. “Aid and Reconstruction of Heritage in the Context of Post-Conflict Societies.” Archaeologies 9 (1): 91–105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11759-013-9224-5.

Holtorf, Cornelius. 2006. “Can Less Be More? Heritage in the Age of Terrorism.” Public Archaeology 5 (2): 101–9.

Hulme, David, and Michael Edwards. 1997. NGOs, States and Donors: Too Close for Comfort? St. Martin’s Press.

Isakhan, Benjamin, and José Antonio González Zarandona. 2017. “Layers of Religious and Political Iconoclasm under the Islamic State: Symbolic Sectarianism and Pre-Monotheistic Iconoclasm.” International Journal of Heritage Studies, May, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2017.1325769.

Kaldor, Mary. 2003. Global Civil Society: An Answer to War. Wiley.

Kassab, Elizabeth Suzanne. 2010. Contemporary Arab Thought: Cultural Critique in Comparative Perspective. Columbia University Press.

Kendall, Elisabeth. 2016. “Jihadist Propaganda and Its Exploitation of the Arab Poetic Tradition.” In Reclaiming Islamic Tradition: Modern Interpretations of the Classical Heritage, Edited by Elisabeth Kendall and Ahmad Khan, 223–46. Edinburgh Univ Pr.

Kendall, Elisabeth, and Ahmad Khan. 2016. Reclaiming Islamic Tradition: Modern Interpretations of the Classical Heritage. Edinburgh Univ Pr.

Kraidy, Marwan M. 1999. “The Global, the Local, and the Hybrid: A Native Ethnography of Glocalization.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 16 (4): 456–76. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295039909367111.

Kreps, Christina. 2014. “Cultural Heritage, Humanitarianism and Development Critical Links.” In Museums, Heritage and International Development. Routledge.

Lababidi, Rim, and Hiba Qassar. 2016. “Did They Really Forget How to Do It? Iraq, Syria, and the International Response to Protect a Shared Heritage.” Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies 4 (4): 341–62.

Lahoud, Nelly. 2005. Political Thought in Islam: A Study in Intellectual Boundaries. Routledge Advances in Middle East and Islamic Studies. Taylor & Francis.

———. 2017. “A Cappella Songs (Anashid) in Jihadi Culture.” In Jihadi Culture, edited by Thomas Hegghammer. Cambridge University Press.

Leckie, Leonardo, E Cunliffe, and Bastien Varoutsikos. 2017. “Towards a Protection of the Syrian Cultural Heritage: A Summary of the International Responses Volume IV (October 2015-December 2016),” March.

Lund, Aron. 2013. “Syria’s Salafi Insurgents: The Rise of the Syrian Islamic Front.” UI Occasional Papers 17.

Meskell, Lynn. 2010. “Conflict Heritage and Expert Failure.” In Heritage and Globalisation, 192–201.

———. 2015. “Gridlock: UNESCO, Global Conflict and Failed Ambitions.” World Archaeology 47 (2): 225–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.2015.1017598.

Meskell, Lynn, and Colette Scheermeyer. 2008. “Heritage as Therapy Set Pieces from the New South Africa.” Journal of Material Culture 13 (2): 153–73.

OB, Olive Branch. 2016. “منظمة غصن زيتون.” 2016. http://obranch.org/.

Perini, Silvia, and E Cunliffe. 2014a. “Towards a Protection of the Syrian Cultural Heritage: A Summary of the International Responses Volume I (March 2011-March 2014),” April.

———. 2014b. “Towards a Protection of the Syrian Cultural Heritage: A Summary of the International Responses Volume II (March 2014-September 2014),” October.

———. 2015. “Towards a Protection of the Syrian Cultural Heritage: A Summary of the International Responses Volume III (Sept 2014-Sept 2015),” October.

Pieslak, Jonathan. 2017. “A Musicological Perspective on Jihadi Anashid.” In Jihadi Culture, edited by Thomas Hegghammer. Cambridge University Press.

Robertson, Iain. 2008. “Heritage from below: Class, Social Protest and Resistance.” In The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity, 143–58.

———. , ed. 2016. Heritage from Below. Routledge.

Salazar, Philippe-Joseph. 2017. Words Are Weapons: Inside Isis’s Rhetoric of Terror. Yale University Press.

Salvatore, Armando. 1995. “The Rational Authentication of Turath In Contemporary Arab Thought: Muhammad Al-Jabiri and Hasan Hanafi.” The Muslim World 85 (3‐4): 191–214.

Schofield, John. 2014. Who Needs Experts?: Counter-Mapping Cultural Heritage. Routledge.

———. 2015. “Forget About ‘Heritage’: Place, Ethics and the Faro Convention.” In The Ethics of Cultural Heritage, 197–209. Springer.

Silverman, Helaine, and D. Fairchild Ruggles. 2008. Cultural Heritage and Human Rights. Springer Science & Business Media.

Smith, Claire, Heather Burke, Cherrie de Leiuen, and Gary Jackson. 2016. “The Islamic State’s Symbolic War: Da’esh’s Socially Mediated Terrorism as a Threat to Cultural Heritage.” Journal of Social Archaeology 16 (2): 164–88.

Sørensen, Marie Louise Stig, and Dacia Viejo-Rose. 2015. War and Cultural Heritage. Cambridge University Press.

Starzmann, Maria Theresia. 2008. “Cultural Imperialism and Heritage Politics in the Event of Armed Conflict: Prospects for an ‘Activist Archaeology.’” Archaeologies 4 (3): 368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11759-008-9083-7.

Viejo-Rose, Dacia. 2013. “Reconstructing Heritage in the Aftermath of Civil War: Re-Visioning the Nation and the Implications of International Involvement.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 7 (2): 125–48. https://doi.org/10.1080/17502977.2012.714241.

Winter, Tim. 2014. “Postconflict Heritage in Asia: Shifting Geographies of Aid.” In Museums, Heritage and International Development. Routledge.
URI: https://openarchive.icomos.org/id/eprint/1907

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item



Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics