Matumizi ya Kiashiria cha Mabadiliko ya Tabia-nchi kwa Magofu ya Kilwa Kisiwani na Magofu ya Songo Mnara, Tanzania [Application of the Climate Vulnerability Index for the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and the Ruins of Songo Mnara, Tanzania. Swahili translation]

Heron, Scott F., Day, Jon D., Mbogelah, Mercy, Bugumba, Revocatus, Abraham, Evarest, Sadi, Mohamed Bakari, Noah, Pauline, Khamis, Mzee Said, Madenge, Stephen, Megarry, Will and Sanjo Mafuru, Steven (2022) Matumizi ya Kiashiria cha Mabadiliko ya Tabia-nchi kwa Magofu ya Kilwa Kisiwani na Magofu ya Songo Mnara, Tanzania [Application of the Climate Vulnerability Index for the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and the Ruins of Songo Mnara, Tanzania. Swahili translation]. Project Report. CVI Africa Project, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 56p. [Book]

[img]
Preview
PDF
CVI Kilwa KIsiwani and Songo Mnara Report - Swah-min.pdf
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike.

Download (8MB) | Preview

Abstract (in English)

Climate change is a major threat to World Heritage (WH) and many sites are already experiencing impacts from climate change related hazards. As the climate crisis intensifies, there remains an urgent need to understand the vulnerability of heritage sites. This report describes the outcomes from an application of the Climate Vulnerability Index (CVI) for the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (hereafter RKK and RSM) WH property in Tanzania. The CVI methodology is an emerging technique to rapidly assess the vulnerability of natural and cultural WH, which assesses realised and potential impacts to both Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) and the associated community. It was held as part of the United Kingdom Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport funded Values-based Climate Change Risk Assessment: Piloting the Climate Vulnerability Index for Cultural Heritage in Africa Project (hereafter CVI-Africa project). The CVI-Africa project was the first time the CVI had been applied to African WH properties. The CVI was held on 18th and 19th October 2021, and applied the Consult mode, a more concise and rapid assessment than a full CVI Workshop. It was held in-person and involved the site manager, a representative from the National Museum of Tanzania, the Chairman and members of the site Ruins Committee and a translator. Facilitators and other project team members joined remotely. It was preceded by three preparatory webinars with contributions from experts from a wide range of backgrounds which fed directly into the Consult. Within the CVI process, participants selected ca. 2040 as the future time scale on which to assess vulnerability and chose to consider a high-emissions scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway, RCP8.5). Participants identified the three climate stressors of greatest threat: Intense Precipitation Events, Sea level rise (trend), and Coastal erosion. Examples of actual and potential impacts include the percolation of rainwater into structures, the erosion of gullies during heavy rainfall and the erosion of archaeological remains along the coast near the Gereza Fort. The potential impact on the OUV, derived from exposure and sensitivity, was determined as extreme (the highest on a four-point scale, low to extreme) for Coastal erosion; high for Intense precipitation events; and as moderate for Sea level rise. Once adaptive capacity was taken into account, the combined OUV Vulnerability for the sites was determined to be Moderate. The potential community vulnerability varied considerably. Economic values related to conservation and management were perceived to experience a future increase in economic activity resulting from a predicted increase to impacts, while those linked to tourism and services would be negatively affected by a loss of values. Impacts to cultural and social values were deemed to be negative at a moderate level. The adaptive capacities were deemed to be moderate for economic and low for social and cultural, resulting in the Community Vulnerability being determined as Low. It was abundantly clear that previous adaptive measures taken at the site had a beneficial impact on both OUV and community adaptive capacity. These also contributed significantly to the local economy. As such, the RKK and RSM WH property represents a good example of how climate adaptation measures can both preserve the OUV of WH properties while simultaneously supporting local communities. It also highlights the value of local knowledge and experience locally, nationally and internationally.

Mabadiliko ya Tabia-nchi ni moja ya athari kuu kwenye Hifadhi za Urithi wa Dunia na hifadhi nyingi tayari zimekwisha patwa ama fikiwa na uzoefu wa athari zinazotokana na madhara ya mabadiliko ya Tabia-nchi. Kila yanapojitokeza madhara ya kuongezeka kwa athari za Tabia-nchi, kunakuwapo na masalia muhimu ya uharaka katika kutambua athari hizo kwa hifadhi hizi za urithi. Ripoti hii ina elezea matokeo kutokana na Matumizi ya viashiria vya Mabadiliko ya Tabia kwa Maeneo ya Urithi wa Dunia kwa Magofu ya Kilwa Kisiwani na Magofu ya Songo Mnara, Tanzania. Njia inayotumika na CVI ni mbinu iliyojitokeza katika uharaka wa kutathmini athari za asili na kitamaduni za maeneo ya Urithi wa Dunia ambazo zitafanya tathmin ya mapokeo ya athari kuu kwa maeneo yote makuu mawili ya Sifa za Kipekee Zisizo na Kifani za kidunia pamoja na kwa jamii husika. Muktadha huu umefikiwa mara baada ya kushikiriwa kama sehemu ya sanaa ya Umoja wa Nchi za Kiingereza pamoja na baraza za tafiti za masuala ya Kibinadamu zikishirikiana na Idara za Kidigitali, Tamaduni, Habari na Michezo zinazofadhiliwa na tathmini ya thamani linganishi ya hatari za mabadiliko ya Tabia-nchi: Majaribio ya matumizi ya Kiashiria cha Mabadiliko ya Tabia-nchi ama vielezo vya athari ya mabadiliko ya Tabia-nchi kwa Maeneo ya Urithi ya Kitamaduni katika Mradi wa Bara la Afrika ( na hapa ikitambulika kama Mradi wa CVI-Barani Afrika). Mradi huu wa CVI- Barani Afrika ni wa kwanza kutumika kwenye maeneo ya Urithi wa Dunia Afrika. Kusanyiko la wadau wa CVI lilifanyika mnamo tarehe 18 hadi 19 ya Mwezi Oktoba Mwaka 2021, lilijumuisha hali ya mashaurino, kwa ufupisho zaidi na kwa tathmin ya uharaka badala ya kufanya semina ya CVI iliyokamilka. Mkusanyiko huu ulifanyika kwa kila mmoja wetu (kibinafsi) na ulijumuisha Mameja wa Hifadhi, Mwakilishi toka Makumbusho ya Taifa- Tanzania, Mwenyekiti na Mjumbe wa Kamati ya Hifadhi za Magofu husika pamoja na mtafasiri wa lugha (mkalimani). Mwezeshaji wa Mkutano ama kusanyiko hilo na washirika wengine wa timu ya Mradi walijiunga kutokea mbali kwa njia ya mtandao. Mkutano ama kusanyiko hili lilitanguliwa hapo awali na vikao vya maandalizi vitatu kwa mtandao ambavyo vilipokea mawazo kutoka kwa wataalam katika Nyanja pana za kutoa picha halisi-ndogo nyuma ya picha halisi-kubwa (usuli) iliyoshiba na kusheheni na hivyo kuingia moja kwa moja katika mashauriano.

Item Type: Book (Project Report)
Authors:
Authors
Email
Heron, Scott F.
UNSPECIFIED
Day, Jon D.
UNSPECIFIED
Mbogelah, Mercy
UNSPECIFIED
Bugumba, Revocatus
UNSPECIFIED
Abraham, Evarest
UNSPECIFIED
Sadi, Mohamed Bakari
UNSPECIFIED
Noah, Pauline
UNSPECIFIED
Khamis, Mzee Said
UNSPECIFIED
Madenge, Stephen
UNSPECIFIED
Megarry, Will
UNSPECIFIED
Sanjo Mafuru, Steven
UNSPECIFIED
Languages: Swahili
Keywords: Tanzania; World Heritage; harbours; mosques; military architecture; Climate Vulnerability Index; climate change; risk factors; archaeology; erosion
Subjects: B. ARCHAEOLOGY > 02. Archaeological site and remains
E.CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION > 08. Monitoring
G.DETERIORATION > 03. Climate change
H.HERITAGE TYPOLOGIES > 28. World Heritage
M.WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION > 08. Monitoring
P. GEOGRAPHIC AREAS > 02. Africa
Name of monument, town, site, museum: Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani; Ruins of Songo Mnara
UNESCO WHC Number: 144
National Committee: Nigeria
Number of Pages: 56
Depositing User: ICOMOS DocCentre
Date Deposited: 15 Jun 2022 12:26
Last Modified: 15 Jun 2022 14:17
References: Chami, F. (1994). The Tanzanian Coast in the First Millennium A.D: An Archaeology of the iron Working, Farming Communities, (Studies in African Archaeology). Societas Archaeological Upsaliensis, Uppsala, 106pp.



Chami, F. (1999). Roman Beads from the Rufiji Delta, Tanzania: First Incontrovertible Archaeological Link with the Periplus. Current Anthropology 40 (2): 237-242.



Chami, F. (2004). The Egypto-Graeco-Romans and Panchaea/Azania: Sailing in the Erythraean Sea. BAR International Series 1269: 93-104.



Day J.C., Heron S.F., Markham A. (2020) Assessing the climate vulnerability of the world’s natural and cultural heritage. Parks Stewardship Forum 36: 144-153. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/92v9v778



Freeman-Grenville, G. P. (1975). The East African Coast: Selected documents from the first to earliest nineteenth century. Clarendon Press, Oxford.



Heron S.F., Day J.C., Cowell C., Scott P.R., Walker D., Shaw J. (2020) Application of the Climate Vulnerability Index for Shark Bay, Western Australia. Western Australian Marine Science Institution, Perth, Western Australia, 80pp. ISBN 978-0-9872761-3-1. www.wamsi.org.au/cvishark-Bay



Heron S.F., Eakin C.M., Douvere F., Anderson K., Day J.C., Geiger E., Hoegh-Guldberg O., van Hooidonk R., Hughes T., Marshall P., Obura D. (2017) Impacts of Climate Change on World Heritage Coral Reefs: A First Global Scientific Assessment. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 16pp. https://whc.unesco.org/document/158688



Heron S.F., Eakin C.M., Douvere F., Anderson K., Day J.C., Geiger E., Hoegh-Guldberg O., van Hooidonk R., Hughes T., Marshall P., Obura D. (2018) Impacts of Climate Change on World Heritage Coral Reefs: Update to the First Global Scientific Assessment. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 8pp. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0026/002656/265625e.pdf



Heron S.F., Liu G., Eakin C.M., Skirving W.J., Muller-Karger F.E., Vega-Rodriguez M., De La Cour J.L., Burgess T.F.R., Strong A.E., Geiger E.F., Guild L.S., Lynds S. (2015). Climatology Development for NOAA Coral Reef Watch’s 5-km Product Suite. Technical Report NESDIS 145. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, Coral Reef Watch, College Park, MD. 21pp. doi:10.7289/V59C6VBS. https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/data/oceans/coris/library/NOAA/CRCP/project/915/TR_NESDIS_145.pdf



Ichumbaki, E. B & Lubao, C. B. (2020). Musicalizing heritage and heritagizing music for enhancing community awareness of preserving world heritage sites in Africa. Intern. J. Heritage Studies 26 (4): 415-432.



ICOMOS [International Council on Monuments and Sites] (2017). Resolution 19GA 2017/30 – Mobilizing ICOMOS and the cultural heritage community to help meet the challenge of climate change. 19th General Assembly of ICOMOS, 2017. https://www.icomos.org/images/DOCUMENTS/General_Assemblies/19th_Delhi_2017/19th_GA_Outcomes/GA2017_Resolutions_EN_20180206finalcirc.pdf



ICOMOS [International Council on Monuments and Sites]. (2019). The Future of our Pasts: Engaging Cultural Heritage in Climate Action: Report of the ICOMOS Workings Group on Climate Change and Cultural Heritage. https://indd.adobe.com/view/a9a551e3-3b23-4127-99fd-a7a80d91a29e



IFRC [International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies]. (2021). Final Report, Tanzania: Tropical Storm JOBO. https://reliefweb.int/report/united-republictanzania/

tanzania-tropical-storm-jobo-drefoperation-n-mdrtz029-final-report



IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] Contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. IPCC Secretariat,

Geneva.



IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri & L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp.



IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] (2018). Summary for Policymakers. In: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty.



IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] (2019). IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, N.M. Weyer (eds.)].



IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] (2021). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, A. Pirani, S.L. Connors, C. Péan, S. Berger, N. Caud, Y. Chen, L. Goldfarb, M.I. Gomis, M. Huang, K. Leitzell, E. Lonnoy, J.B.R. Matthews, T.K. Maycock, T. Waterfield, O. Yelekçi, R. Yu, and B. Zhou (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. In Press



Kirkman, J. (1964). Men and Monuments on the East African Coast, London, Lutterworth Press.



Mahongo, S. B., Francis, J., & Osima, S. E. (2011). Wind patterns of coastal Tanzania: their variability and trends. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science, 10(2), 107-120.



McLaughlin, R. (2018). The Roman Empire and the Indian Ocean. Pen and Sword Books Limited. Yorkshire – Philadelphia.



Msemo, H. E., Finney, D. L., & Mbuya, S. I. (2021). Forgotten accounts of tropical cyclones making landfall in Tanzania. Weather.



Nakamura, R., (2011). Multi-Ethnic Existence and Fisheries in Kilwa. Shima: The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures, 5(1), 44-68



Niang, I., O.C. Ruppel, M.A. Abdrabo, A. Essel, C. Lennard, J. Padgham, and P. Urquhart (2014): Africa. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.



Osipova E., Shadie P., Zwahlen C., Osti M., Shi Y, Kormos C., Bertzky B., Murai M., Van Merm R., Badman T. (2017) IUCN World Heritage Outlook 2: A conservation assessment of all natural World Heritage sites. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.



Osipova E., Emslie-Smith M., Osti M., Murai M., Aberg U., Shadie P. (2020) IUCN World Heritage Outlook 3: A conservation assessment of all natural World Heritage sites. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. x + 90pp. https://doi.org/10.2305/iucn.ch.2020.16.en



Perkins, J., Fleisher, J., & Wynne-Jones, S. (2014). A deposit of Kilwa-type coins from Songo Mnara, Tanzania. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 49(1), 102-116.



Roxy M.K. et al. (2020) Indian Ocean Warming. In: Krishnan R., Sanjay J., Gnanaseelan C., Mujumdar M., Kulkarni A., Chakraborty S. (eds) Assessment of Climate Change over the Indian Region. Springer, Singapore. Tanzania Meteorological Authority (n.d.) Map Room. http://maproom.meteo.go.tz/maproom/



UNESCO (n.d). Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara, World Heritage List. Retrieved 30 January 2022 from https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/



UNESCO (2021). The outcomes of the Third Cycle of Periodic Reporting for Africa region in pursuant to Decision 41 COM 10A (WHC/21/44.COM/10B). http://whc.unesco.org/archive/2021/whc21-44com-10B-en.pdf



World Bank Climate Change Knowledge Portal (n.d). Tanzania. https://climateknowledgeportal.worldbank.org/country/tanzaniaReference
URI: https://openarchive.icomos.org/id/eprint/2659

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Metadata

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

© ICOMOS
http://www.international.icomos.org
openarchive(at)icomos.org