An interdisciplinary approach to a knowledge-based restoration: the dark alteration on Matera Cathedral (Italy)

Rampazzi, Laura, Andreotti, Alessia, Bressan, Mario, Colombini, Maria Perla, Corti, Cristina, Cuzman, Oana, D'Alessandro, Nicola, Liberatore, Lolita, Palombi, Lorenzo, Raimondi, Valentina, Sacchi, Barbara, Tiano, Piero, Tonucci, Lucia, Vettori, Silvia, Zanardini, Elisabetta and Ranalli, Giancarlo (2018) An interdisciplinary approach to a knowledge-based restoration: the dark alteration on Matera Cathedral (Italy). Applied Surface Science, 458 (2018). pp. 529-539. ISSN 0169-4332 [Article]

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Abstract (in English)

An interdisciplinary analytical campaign was carried out on the exterior walls of the Santa Maria della Bruna and Sant’Eustachio Cathedral in Matera. Large areas of these walls have become darkened and the main objective was to evaluate the state of conservation of the stone material (a very porous, organogenic limestone called “Pietra di Matera”), and to suggest the best strategy for the current restoration. Several techniques were used in situ and ex situ-in laboratory analyses: X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, ion chromatography, pyrolysis/gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, colour change measurements, laser-induced fluorescence together with biological techniques. Ex-situ and in situ cleaning tests were also carried out on the stone surface. The results showed the presence of chlorophyll and bacteria on the surface, together with sulfation and calcium oxalate films as the main decay phenomena. In addition, the determination of saccharide and egg residues suggest both biological activity and past conservative treatments as the cause of oxalate films. Data obtained from the analyses proved to be very useful for the conservation work; a complex plan of restoration was adopted, including both traditional and innovative techniques (such as biocleaning, bacterial-gel and a laser system) together with a final evaluation of several protective methods

Item Type: Article
Rampazzi, Laura
Andreotti, Alessia
Bressan, Mario
Colombini, Maria Perla
Corti, Cristina
Cuzman, Oana
D'Alessandro, Nicola
Liberatore, Lolita
Palombi, Lorenzo
Raimondi, Valentina
Sacchi, Barbara
Tiano, Piero
Tonucci, Lucia
Vettori, Silvia
Zanardini, Elisabetta
Ranalli, Giancarlo
Languages: English
Keywords: Dark alteration; FT-IR; LIF; Py-GC-MS; calcium oxalate film; biocleaning; religious heritage; christian heritage; cathedrals; interdisciplinarity; Restoration techniques; Italy; cleaning; world heritage; world heritage sites
Subjects: C.ARCHITECTURE > 04. Building materials
C.ARCHITECTURE > 05. Building techniques
G.DETERIORATION > 02. Causes of deterioration
H.HERITAGE TYPOLOGIES > 13. Historic town centres
Name of monument, town, site, museum: Santa Maria della Bruna and Sant’Eustachio Cathedral (Matera, Italy)
UNESCO WHC Number: 670
Volume: 458
Number: 2018
ISSN: 0169-4332
Depositing User: dr Laura Rampazzi
Date Deposited: 02 Mar 2021 11:20
Last Modified: 01 Jun 2022 15:28
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