Thermal analysis and archaeological chronology: the ancient mortars of the site of Baradello (Como, Italy)

Corti, Cristina, Rampazzi, Laura, Bugini, Roberto, Sansonetti, Antonio, Biraghi, Marco, Castelletti, Lanfredo, Nobile, Isabella and Orsenigo, Isabella (2013) Thermal analysis and archaeological chronology: the ancient mortars of the site of Baradello (Como, Italy). Thermochimica Acta (572). pp. 71-84. ISSN 0040-6031 [Article]

[img]
Preview
PDF
Thermal analysis and archaeological chronology the ancient mortars of the site of Baradello (Como, Italy).pdf

Download (1MB) | Preview

Abstract (in English)

Mortar is an artificial material, commonly used since ancient times and widely conserved, in many cases in good conditions, to the present day. In this study, mortars from different structures of the medieval site of Baradello (Como, Italy) were analyzed, in order to characterize the materials and to help archaeologists to define a building chronology, only partially hypothesized, so far. Firstly, thin sections were prepared and observed by optical microscopy, then samples were analyzed by TG-DSC, XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDX. TG-DSC proved to be the most useful technique for the purpose, because the treatment of its data pointed out differences between the architectural structures, suggesting a possible building chronology of the site.

Item Type: Article
Authors:
AuthorsEmail
Corti, CristinaUNSPECIFIED
Rampazzi, Lauralaura.rampazzi@uninsubria.it
Bugini, RobertoUNSPECIFIED
Sansonetti, AntonioUNSPECIFIED
Biraghi, MarcoUNSPECIFIED
Castelletti, LanfredoUNSPECIFIED
Nobile, IsabellaUNSPECIFIED
Orsenigo, IsabellaUNSPECIFIED
Languages: English
Keywords: TG-DSC; medieval mortar; chronology; binder/aggregate ratio; hydraulicity index; building materials; analysis of materials; castles; medieval architecture; archaeological dating; dating techniques; samples; Italy
Subjects: A. THEORETICAL AND GENERAL ASPECTS > 05. History of archaeology
B. ARCHAEOLOGY > 02. Archaeological site and remains
C.ARCHITECTURE > 04. Building materials
C.ARCHITECTURE > 05. Building techniques
E.CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION > 05. Sites
F.SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGIES OF CONSERVATION > 06. Analysis of materials
F.SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGIES OF CONSERVATION > 09. Archaeometry
F.SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGIES OF CONSERVATION > 28. Infra red analysis
F.SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGIES OF CONSERVATION > 35. Mineralogical analysis
F.SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGIES OF CONSERVATION > 37. Petrographical analysis
H.HERITAGE TYPOLOGIES > 03. Archaeological sites
P. GEOGRAPHIC AREAS > 05. Europe
Name of monument, town, site, museum: Baradello Castle (Como, Italy)
Number: 572
ISSN: 0040-6031
Depositing User: dr Laura Rampazzi
Date Deposited: 05 Feb 2018 09:51
Last Modified: 05 Feb 2018 09:51
References: [1] D. Miriello, A. Bloise, G.M. Crisci, C. Apollaro, A. La Marca, Characterisation of archaeological mortars and plasters from Kyme (Turkey), Journal of Archaeological Science 38 (2011) 794-804.

[2] M.P. Riccardi, P. Duminuco, C. Tomasi, P. Ferloni, Thermal, microscopic and X-ray diffraction studies on some ancient mortars, Thermochimica Acta 321 (1998) 207-214.

[3] J. Elsen, Microscopy of historic mortars - a review, Cement and Concrete Research 36 (2006) 1416-1424.

[4] M. Vendrell-Saz, S. Alarcon, J. Molera, M. Garcia-Valles, Dating ancient lime mortars by geochemical and mineralogical analysis, Archaeometry 38 (1996) 143-149.

[5] P. Bruno, D. Calabrese, M. Di Pierro, A. Genga, C. Laganara, D.A.P. Manigrassi, A. Traini, P. Ubbriaco, Chemical-physical and mineralogical investigation on ancient mortars from the archaeological site of Monte Sannace (Bari-Southern Italy), Thermochimica Acta 418 (2004) 131-141.

[6] L. Rampazzi, A. Pozzi, A. Sansonetti, L. Toniolo, B. Giussani, A chemometric approach to the characterisation of historical mortars, Cement and Concrete Research 36 (2006) 1108-1114.

[7] L. Rampazzi, D. Monticelli, R. Verga, L. Toniolo, A new microwave-assisted approach to the chemical analysis of mortars, Annali Di Chimica 93 (2003) 315-320.

[8] R. Bugini, S. Della Torre, A. Pozzi, L. Rampazzi, A. Sansonetti, Classification of multi-layered plaster in St. Abbondio Cloister at Como, Italy: an analytical tool for architectural archaeology, Materiales De Construccion 56 (2006) 5-16.

[9] C. Genestar, C. Pons, A. Mas, Analytical characterisation of ancient mortars from the archaeological Roman city of Pollentia (Balearic Islands, Spain), Analytica Chimica Acta 557 (2006) 373-379.

[10] A. Duran, M.D. Robador, M.C. Jimenez de Haro, V. Ramirez-Valle, Study by thermal analysis of mortars belonging to wall paintings corresponding to some historical buildings of Sevillian art, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 92 (2008) 353-359.

[11] A. Bakolas, G. Biscontin, V. Contardi, E. Franceschi, A. Moropoulou, D. Palazzi, E. Zendri, Thermoanalytical research on traditional mortars in Venice, Thermochimica Acta 269 (1995) 817-828.

[12] A. Iordanidis, J. Garcia-Guinea, A. Strati, A. Gkimourtzine, A. Papoulidou, Thermal, mineralogical and spectroscopic study of plasters from three post-Byzantine churches from Kastoria (northern Greece), Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 103 (2011) 577-586.

[13] W. Bartz, T. Filar, Mineralogical characterization of rendering mortars from decorative details of a baroque building in Kozuchow (SW Poland), Materials Characterization 61 (2010) 105-115.

[14] P. Cardiano, S. Sergi, C. De Stefano, S. Ioppolo, P. Piraino, Investigations on ancient mortars from the Basilian monastery of Fragala, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 91 (2008) 477-485.

[15] J.I. Alvarez, I. Navarro, P.J.G. Casado, Thermal, mineralogical and chemical studies of the mortars used in the cathedral of Pamplona (Spain), Thermochimica Acta 365 (2000) 177-187.

[16] A. Moropoulou, A. Bakolas, K. Bisbikou, Characterization of ancient, Byzantine and later historic mortars by thermal and X-ray diffraction techniques, Thermochimica Acta 269 (1995) 779-795.

[17] G.M. Ingo, I. Fragala, G. Bultrini, T. de Caro, C. Riccucci, G. Chiozzini, Thermal and microchemical investigation of Phoenician-Punic mortars used for lining cisterns at Tharros (western Sardinia, Italy), Thermochimica Acta 418 (2004) 53-60.

[18] J. Sanjurjo-Sanchez, M.J. Trindade, R. Blanco-Rotea, R. Benavides Garcia, D. Fernandez Mosquera, C. Burbidge, M.I. Prudencio, M.I. Dias, Chemical and mineralogical characterization of historic mortars from the Santa Eulalia de Boveda temple, NW Spain, Journal of Archaeological Science 37 (2010) 2346-2351.

[19] S. Vecchio, A. Laginestra, A. Frezza, C. Ferragina, The use of thermoanalytical techniques in the characterization of ancient mortars, Thermochimica Acta 227 (1993) 215-223.

[20] L. Paama, I. Pitkanen, H. Ronkkomaki, P. Peramaki, Thermal and infrared spectroscopic characterization of historical mortars, Thermochimica Acta 320 (1998) 127-133.

[21] J. Adams, W. Kneller, D. Dollimore, Thermal analysis (TA) of lime- and gypsum-based medieval mortars, Thermochimica Acta 211 (1992) 93-106.

[22] L.M. Belloni, Il castello Baradello. Zona A., Edizioni New Press, 1980.

[23] M. Biraghi, L. Castelletti, I. Nobile, C. Orsenigo, Le nuove scoperte archeologiche, in L. Marchiò, Baradello e dintorni. Storia e restauro del simbolo di Como, Edizioni New Press, Cermenate (CO), 2012, pp. 82-88.

[24] A. Bakolas, G. Biscontin, A. Moropoulou, E. Zendri, Characterization of structural byzantine mortars by thermogravimetric analysis, Thermochimica Acta 321 (1998) 151-160.

[25] A. Santos Silva, M. Paiva, J. Ricardo, M. Salta, A.M. Monteiro, A.E. Candeias, Characterisation of roman mortars from the archaeological site of Tróia (Portugal), Materials Science Forum 514-516 (2006) 1643-1647.

[26] A.L. Velosa, J. Coroado, M.R. Veiga, F. Rocha, Characterisation of roman mortars from Conímbriga with respect to their repair, Materials Characterization 58 (2007) 1208-1216.

[27] Vitruvius, On Architecture, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1933.

[28] H.G.M. Edwards, D.W. Farwell, The conservational heritage of wall paintings and buildings: an FT-Raman spectroscopic study of prehistoric, Roman, mediaeval and Renaissance lime substrates and mortars, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 39 (2008) 985-992.

[29] A. Moropoulou, A. Bakolas, K. Bisbikou, Investigation of the technology of historic mortars, Journal of Cultural Heritage 1 (2000) 45-58.

[30] C. Genestar, C. Pons, Ancient covering plaster mortars from several convents and Islamic and Gothic palaces in Palma de Mallorca (Spain). Analytical characterisation, Journal of Cultural Heritage 4 (2003) 291-298.

[31] N. Prieto-Taboada, M. Maguregui, I. Martinez-Arkarazo, M.A. Olazabal, G. Arana, J.M. Madariaga, Spectroscopic evaluation of the environmental impact on black crusted modern mortars in urban-industrial areas, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 399 (2011) 2949-2959.

[32] D. Chakrabarty, S. Mahapatra, Aragonite crystals with unconventional morphologies, Journal of Materials Chemistry 9 (1999) 2953-2957.

[33] M.R. Derrick, D. Stulik, J.M. Landry, Infrared Spectroscopy in Conservation Science, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 1999.

[34] S. Gunasekaran, G. Anbalagan, S. Pandi, Raman and infrared spectra of carbonates of calcite structure, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 37 (2006) 892-899.

[35] V. Reyes-Zamudio, C. Angeles-Chávez, J. Cervantes, Clay minerals in historic buildings, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 104 (2011) 405-413.

[36] A. Duran, L.A. Perez-Maqueda, J. Poyato, J.L. Perez-Rodriguez, A thermal study approach to Roman age wall painting mortars, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 99 (2010) 803-809.

[37] M.V. Borrachero, J. Payá, M. Bonilla, J. Monzó, The use of thermogravimetric analysis technique for the characterization of construction materials, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 91 (2008) 503-509.

[38] A. Bakolas, G. Biscontin, A. Moropoulou, E. Zendri, Characterization of the lumps in the mortars of historic masonry, Thermochimica Acta 269 (1995) 809-816.

[39] R. Bugini, L. Folli, A. Lommano, Plaster technologies in Northern Italy from 15th to 19th century, 8th International Congress on deterioration and conservation of stone (Berlin, 30/9-4/10 1996). Proceedings (1996) pag. 1495-1503.
URI: http://openarchive.icomos.org/id/eprint/1862

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Metadata

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

© ICOMOS
http://www.international.icomos.org
openarchive(at)icomos.org