The Making of Place: Myth and Memory at the site of Tiwanaku, Bolivia

Friedman, Leslie A. (2008) The Making of Place: Myth and Memory at the site of Tiwanaku, Bolivia. In: 16th ICOMOS General Assembly and International Symposium: ‘Finding the spirit of place – between the tangible and the intangible’, 29 sept – 4 oct 2008, Quebec, Canada. [Conference or Workshop Item]


Download (114kB)

Abstract (in English)

The sacred site of Tiwanaku, Bolivia, the first major city-state in the Central Andes, has, for almost 3,000 years, been appropriated for various intents by the Inca, the Spanish, the Bolivian state, European travelers, spiritualists, and the indigenous Aymara people who claim the World Heritage site as their ancestral home. Investing the site with meanings, myths, memories, each group has created – or recreated – the spirit of the site of Tiwanaku. Today, the site of Tiwanaku continues to be a vortex of competing claims and a location for multiple intangible heritages, such as Aymara cultural ceremonies and modern music videos; a newlycreated solstice festival that is held yearly at the site; and, arguably, the rituals of archaeology and world heritage. This paper traces the making of place and heritage: how, from its inception through today, multiple histories and collective memories have physically altered the site of Tiwanaku, impacting its excavation, conservation, and presentation; and how intangible acts shape the tangibility of place.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Friedman, Leslie A.
Languages: English
Keywords: archaeological site; World Heritage List; intangible heritage; spirit of place; cultural ceremonies; historical survey
Subjects: M.WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION > 03. World Heritage List
O.INTANGIBLE HERITAGE > 01. Generalities
B. ARCHAEOLOGY > 02. Archaeological site and remains
O.INTANGIBLE HERITAGE > 04. Social practices, rituals and festive events
Name of monument, town, site, museum: Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture, Bolivia
UNESCO WHC Number: 567
ICOMOS Special Collection: Scientific Symposium (ICOMOS General Assemblies)
ICOMOS Special Collection Volume: 2008, 16th
Depositing User: Jose Garcia
Date Deposited: 09 Sep 2010 07:36
Last Modified: 13 Jan 2011 19:12
References: Aymara Today. 2001. “Pieza religiosa aymara sufre aggression en La Paz.” Aymara Today No. 07, December 2001. Quoted in Arnold and Yapita. Strands of Indigenism in the Bolivian Andes, 148. Public Archaeology, 2005.

Arnold, D.Y. and J.D. Yapita. 2005. Strands of Indigenism in the Bolivian Andes: Competing juridical claims for the ownership and management of indigenous heritage sites in an emerging context of legal pluralism. In Public Archaeology 4: 141-149.

Binford, Michael W., Alan Kolata, Mark Brenner, John Janusek, Mark Seddon, M. Abbott, and J. Curtis. 1997. Climate Variation and the Rise and Fall of an Andean Civilization. In Quaternary Research 47: 235-248.

DINAR. 1989. Workshop of Archaeological Conservation, the Getty Conservation Instititute. Report prepared by Leocadio Tuclla Coloque for Oswaldo Rivera S., Director of DINAR.

ICOMOS. 2000. Advisory Board Evaluation Tiwanaku (Bolivia). No 567rev.

Isbell, Willem and Alexei Vranich. 2004. Experiencing the Cities of Wari and Tiwanaku. In Andean Archaeology, ed. H. Silverman: 167-182. New York: Blackwell.

Janusek, John. 2005. Collapse as Cultural Revolution: Power and Identity in the Tiwanaku to Pacajes Transition. In Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 14: 175-209.

Kolata, Alan. 1993. The Tiwanaku: Portraits of an Andean Civilization. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Kolata, Alan L. 2003. Tiwanaku Ceremonial Architecture and Urban Organization. In Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, ed. A. L. Kolata: 175-201. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Loza, C. B. Max Uhle in the Bolivian Highlands. Unpublished.

Stanish, Charles. 2002. Tiwanaku Political Economy. In Andean Archaeology I: Variations in Socio-Political Organization, ed. W. Isbell and H. Silverman: 169-198. Kluwer Academic, New York.

Vranich, Alexei. 2006a. Personal Communication. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Vranich, Alexei. 2006b. National Science Foundation Grant Application.

Young-Sanchez, M. 2004. Tiwanaku: Ancestors of the Inca. Denver Museum of Art. Denver, CO: University of Nebraska Press.

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item



Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics