Stone, the Karst Plateau, architecture

Juvanec, Borut (2011) Stone, the Karst Plateau, architecture. AR Architecture, Research, XII (3). pp. 5-14. ISSN ISSN 1581-6974 [Article]

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Abstract (in English)

Clearing fields by removing stones from fields improves their productivity, with an abundance of stone being a by-product. Over time, stones piled in a heap simply disappear. The only way to keep them together is in a structure. For walls, this means overlapping construction, whilst the simplest structure for spanning distances is corbelling: it features graded cross-sections and ground plans that approximate circles, all resulting in corbelled domes. And if there is already a structure, it should at least be useful. The most ancient corbelled structures date to the sixth millenium BC, while stone shelters as we know them today date to the fifteenth century. Corbelled structures were at first intended to shelter shepherds, but there are other uses, such as for wells, tombs, sanctuaries, sites of miracles and so on. These shelters can be found between Iceland and Yemen, from Lanzarote to Palestine: I am in possession of documents regarding this architecture which comprise technical drawings, analyses, photographs and sketches. An issue regarding dry stone structures is their maintenance - they are built without mortar or other bonding. The protection may be a physical matter, and also required by law. The parliament of Extremadura issued a declaration on the protection of the heritage of chozo. The Unesco rules on the safeguarding of cultural heritage should be updated and adapted to this type of structure.

KAMEN, KRAS, ARHITEKTURA Ustalitev pračloveka v stalno bivališče predstavlja prvi poseg človeka v oblikovanje prostora. Začne z jamo, kjer narava krije pet stranic, enega aktivno varuje človek. Arhitektura se začne, ko to stranico pozida, da varuje družino in imetje in si s tem zagotovi preživetje. Kamen v kupu, gomili, v času enostavno izgine. Edina možnost, da ga obdržimo skupaj, je konstrukcija. Za zid je to preklop, za premoščanje razpetin pa je najpreprostejša konstrukcija korbeling: to je stopničenje v prerezu, v tlorisu limitira h krogu, rezultat pa je neprava kupola. Najstarejši objekti korbelinga segajo v šesto tisočletje pred štetjem, kamnita zatočišča kot jih poznamo danes, pa segajo v petnajsto stoletje. Objekti v korbelingu so prvotno namenjeni zavetju pastirjem, nastopajo pa tudi druge namembnosti, vodnjaki, grobnice, svetišča, celo za čudež in še in še. Zatočišča ležijo med Islandijo in Jemnom, od Lanzarota do Palestine. Problem teh konstrukcij je, da jih moramo vzdrževati. Konstrukcija je sestavljena brez veziva, lepila, malte. Varovanje je možno kot fizično in kot varovanje po zakonu. Fizično je oteženo, ker je je vsak objekt unikat, varovanje po zakonu pa je težko zaradi zasebne lastnine. V Extremaduri je Parlament izglasoval dokument o zaščiti kulturne dediščine choza. Pravila Unesca o varovanju kulturne dediščine bi bilo treba posodobiti in prilagoditi tudi tem objektom.

Item Type: Article
Authors:
AuthorsEmail
Juvanec, Borutborut.juvanec@fa.uni-lj.si
Languages: Slovenian
Keywords: vernacular architecture; stone; construction; stone structures; Karst; dry stone structures; architectural heritage; structures of buildings; conservation of architectural heritage; building materials; building techniques
Subjects: A. THEORETICAL AND GENERAL ASPECTS > 02. Concept and definition
A. THEORETICAL AND GENERAL ASPECTS > 06. History of architecture
A. THEORETICAL AND GENERAL ASPECTS > 08. Philosophy of conservation
A. THEORETICAL AND GENERAL ASPECTS > 11. Theory of conservation
C.ARCHITECTURE > 05. Building techniques
E.CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION > 02. Theory and doctrinal texts
F.SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGIES OF CONSERVATION > 55. Typological analysis
H.HERITAGE TYPOLOGIES > 27. Vernacular architecture
J.HERITAGE ECONOMICS > 04. Methodologies of evaluation
Name of monument, town, site, museum: Karst, Slovenia, Škocjanske jame
Volume: XII
Number: 3
ISSN: ISSN 1581-6974
Depositing User: dr. Domen Zupancic
Date Deposited: 23 May 2013 14:07
Last Modified: 23 May 2013 14:07
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URI: http://openarchive.icomos.org/id/eprint/1369

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