Philippine Landscape Heritage Education: Review of the preparedness of Landscape Architecture curricula in the Philippines for the specialization of Landscape Heritage Conservation (LHC)

Tua, Kenneth, Caballero, Gabriel Victor and Aquino - Ong, Susan (2020) Philippine Landscape Heritage Education: Review of the preparedness of Landscape Architecture curricula in the Philippines for the specialization of Landscape Heritage Conservation (LHC). In: NAMI: Philippine Association of Landscape Architects (PALA) National Convention 2021, October 23, 2021, Philippines. [Conference or Workshop Item] (Submitted)

This is the latest version of this item.

Philippine Landscape Heritage Education - ICOMOS PH_10112020.pdf

Download (1MB) | Preview

Abstract (in English)

In the Philippines, the study of Landscape Architecture, the art and science of planning, designing, and implementing functional and aesthetic arrangements of natural scenery and land, is a tailor-fitted course anchored to the ecology and local setting of the country. At present, there are only four (4) higher education institutions offering Landscape Architecture bachelor’s degree with one (1) of them offering a master’s degree programme. Landscape architecture in the Philippines is a vibrant profession and graduates are well equipped to create beautiful spaces fitted to the taste of the current generation. However, the current teaching of landscape architecture is not well grounded on the knowledge of the country’s past, and perspectives of indigenous materials, planting techniques and traditional building techniques passed down to generations are not integrated to the curriculum. This research aims to identify and review the preparedness of Landscape Architecture curricula in the Philippines for the specialization of Landscape Heritage Conservation (LHC). Courses from the Universities were selected and organized based on the identified and reviewed thematic areas and course concentrations, subsequently these are given quantitative scoring assessment for LHC. Utilizing the ‘Geodesign’ framework, the study formulated a developmental process and validation of the interrelationship and collaborative activity created by the thematic areas. The study also provided a joint SWOT – PESTEL analyses in supporting the preparation of the ‘Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities’ to be obtained by the students from the LHC specialization. Landscape Heritage Conservation (LHC) shall create new possibilities for the profession through the study and professionalization of cultural and natural landscapes, thus, raising awareness and significance of cultural heritage and heritage conservation in the lenses of the Philippine landscapes.

Abstract (in French) Aux Philippines, l’étude de l’architecture du paysage, l’art et la science de la planification, la conception et la mise en œuvre d’aménagements fonctionnels et esthétiques de paysages naturels est une formation sur mesure intégrée à l’écologie et au contexte local du pays. Actuellement, il n’existe que quatre (4) établissements d’enseignement supérieur proposant une licence en architecture du paysage, dont un (1) proposant un programme de maîtrise. L’architecture du paysage aux Philippines est un secteur dynamique et les diplômés possèdent une formation solide leur permettant de créer des espaces harmonieux adaptés au goût de la nouvelle génération. Cependant, l’enseignement actuel de l’architecture du paysage ne se fonde pas sur la connaissance du passé du pays ; et les perspectives des matériaux autochtones, des techniques de plantation et de construction traditionnelles transmises de génération en génération ne sont pas intégrées au programme. Cette recherche a pour objectif l’identification et l’examen de l’état de préparation des programmes en architecture du paysage aux Philippines pour la spécialisation Conservation du patrimoine paysager (LHC). En fonction des domaines thématiques et des unités d’enseignements identifiés et examinés, des cours universitaires ont été sélectionnés et organisés, puis ont reçu une évaluation quantitative pour la spécialisation Conservation du patrimoine paysager. En utilisant le programme-cadre « Geodesign », l’étude a élaboré un processus de développement et de validation de l’interrelation et de l’activité de collaboration créée par les domaines thématiques. L’étude proposée a également fourni des analyses SWOT-PESTEL conjointes pour soutenir la préparation des « connaissances, compétences et capacités » que les étudiants de la spécialisation LHC doivent acquérir. La Conservation du patrimoine paysager (LHC) créera de nouvelles opportunités pour la profession à travers l’étude et la professionnalisation des paysages culturels et naturels, augmentant ainsi la sensibilisation et l’importance du patrimoine culturel et de sa conservation dans le cadre des paysages philippins.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Tua, Kenneth
Caballero, Gabriel Victor
Aquino - Ong, Susan
Corporate Authors: International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) Philippines
Languages: English
Keywords: Landscape Architecture; Landscape Heritage Conservation; Specialization; Philippines; Cultural Landscapes; Heritage Education; Cultural Heritage
Subjects: A. THEORETICAL AND GENERAL ASPECTS > 02. Concept and definition
A. THEORETICAL AND GENERAL ASPECTS > 12. Theory of conservation
Q. LANDSCAPES > 16. Landscape Management
A. THEORETICAL AND GENERAL ASPECTS > 13. Theory of cultural landscapes
Q. LANDSCAPES > 14. Vernacular Landscapes
National Committee: Philippines
Depositing User: Ar. Kenneth Tua
Date Deposited: 08 Dec 2021 21:27
Last Modified: 08 Dec 2021 21:27
References: Acabado, S. et al. “Education and Heritage Conservation in the Philippines: Archaeology's Role in Curricular Change (Part 1).” The SAA Archaeological Record, (2020), accessed August 23, 2020,

Alcala, C. A. “Vanishing Treasures of the Philippine Rain Forest.” Foreword, The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 0-914868-19-5, (1998), accessed October 3, 2020,<0246:R>2.0.CO;2.

Andrews, KR. “The concept of corporate strategy. Homewood.” IL.: Irwin Edition, 1987.

Bossche, H.van den, Luengo, A. & Williams, T. “Landscape Architects and their role in Heritage Conservation.” Council of Europe (COE). (2019), accessed August 10, 2020, /strategy-21-factsheet-landscape-architects-and-their-role-in-heritage-/168093c191.

Bulacan State University. “Landscape Architecture Curriculum.” College of Architecture and Fine Arts | Bulacan State University, (2019), accessed July 27, 2020, colleges.php?college_id=CAFA.

Convention on Biological Diversity. “Philippines. Convention on Biological Diversity.” United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), (1994), accessed October 2020,

Caballero, G. “Recent Discussions on Cultural Landscapes in the Philippines.” Academia, (2015), accessed September 8, 2020, on_Cultural_ Landscapes_in_the_Philippines.

Dinçer, Ö. “Stratejik yönetim ve i letme politikası Beta Yayınları.” İstanbul; 16, 2004.

Elghonaimy, I.H. “Landscape Architecture approach significant factor for urban conservation projects succession.” ResearchGate, (2012), accessed August 10, 2020, /publication/329758157_Landscape_Architecture_approach_significant_factor_for_urban_conservation_projects_succession.

Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree (EMJMD) in DYnamics of Cultural Landscape, heritage, Memory and conflictualities (DYCLAM+). “Perspectives professionnelles.” Université Jean Monnet (Main Consortium), (2018), accessed August 20, 2020,

Galingan, Z.D. & Nadal, C.D.S. “Tracing the Urban Cultural Landscape Structure of Manila Sacred Space: A Case Study of Malate Church Grounds.” University of the Philippines - College of Architecture, (2018), accessed August 23, 2020, 1/8/5/4/18549486/13 _urban_cultural_landscape_structure.pdf.

Goodchild, P.H. “Landscape Heritage, Biosphere Change, Climate Change and Conservation A General Approach and an Agenda.” International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), (2007), accessed August 10, 2020, 2006-2007/ pdf/ H@R_2006-2007_51_Special_Focus_Landscape_Heritage.pdf.

Hassanien, M.A. “Strategic Planning in Higher Education, a Need for Innovative Model.” Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, (2017), accessed September 16, 2020, /index.php/JESBS/article/view/16007/29663.

Heaney, L. R., Kitching, R.L., & Regalado, J. “Vanishing Treasures of the Philippine Rain Forest.” Oxford Academic, Journal of Mammalogy, Volume 82, Issue 1, February 2001, pp. 246–247, The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 0-914868-19-5, (1998), accessed October 3, 2020,<0246:R>2.0.CO;2.

Heaney, L. R. & Oliver, W. L. R. “Biodiversity and Conservation in the Philippines.” ResearchGate, International Zoo News Vol. 43, No. 5, pp. 329 – 337, (1996), accessed October 3, 2020,

Hussain, M.R.M., Nizarudin, N.D. &amp; Tukiman, I. “The importance and involvement of landscape architecture in the Green Building Index (GBI) practice.” ResearchGate, (2012), accessed August 10, 2020, nce_and_involvement_of_landscape_architecture_in_the_Green_Building_Index_GBI_practice.

International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). “The International Scientific Committee on Cultural Landscapes ICOMOS-IFLA.” International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), (2019), accessed August 10, 2020,

International Studies in History and Business of Art & Culture. “Cultural Heritage Management.” IESA International, (2017), accessed August 25, 2020,

Johnson, G., Scholes, K., & Whittington, R. “Exploring corporate strategy: Text and cases.” 8th ed. Pearson Education, Ltd: Harlow, 2008.

Kamal, N.F. “Landskap Tingkatkan Kualiti Hidup Manusia.” Utusan Malaysia, 2011.

Konsa, K. “Natural and Cultural Heritage Framing Meanings and Practices.” ResearchGate, (2016), accessed August 25, 2020, Cultural_Heritage_Framing_Meanings_and_Practices.

Marasigan, L.S. “Expert suggests new tack to push privatization of 5 regional airports.” Business Mirror PH, (2017), accessed September 18, 2020, expert-suggests-new-tack-to-push-privatization-of-5-regional-airports/.

Miller, W.R. “Introducing Geodesign: The Concept.” Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), (2012), accessed September 16, 2020, pdfs/introducing-geodesign.pdf.

Mitchell, N., Rössler, M. & Tricaud, P.-M. “Cultural Landscapes.” UNESCO World Heritage Centre – Series, (2009), accessed August 10, 2020,

Neave, G.R. “Knowledge, power and dissent: critical perspectives on higher education and research in knowledge society.” UNESDOC Digital Library, (2006), accessed August 25, 2020,

Rekittke, J. “Challenges and Approaches of Landscape Research and Design in the Global South.” ResearchGate, (2018), accessed August 10, 2020, 732965_Challenges_and_Approaches_of_Landscape_Research_and_Design_in_the_Global_South.

Srinivas, H. “Prioritizing Cultural Heritage in the Asia-Pacific Region: Role of City Governments.” GDRC Research Output E-047, Kobe, Japan: Global Development Research Center, (May 2015), accessed September 18, 2020,

Steinitz, C. “A framework for Geodesign: Changing Geography by design.” Redlands: ESRI, 2012.

Steinitz, C. “On Landscape Architecture Education and Professional Practice and Their Future Challenges.” MDPI, (2020), accessed August 10, 2020,

Tanhueco - Tumapon, T. “The many faces of biodiversity education.” The Manila times, (2018), accessed October 2, 2020,

Taylor, K. “Cultural Landscapes and Asia: Reconciling International and Southeast Asian Regional Values.’ ResearchGate, (2009), accessed September 18, 2020, publication/248993871_Cultural_Landscapes_and_Asia_Reconciling_International_and_Southeast_Asian_Regional_Values.

Tua, K., 2020. ASEAN Endurance: Multi-sectoral coping mechanism for Southeast Asia’s cultural landscapes amidst fear and human insecurity. Instituto Politécnico de Tomar. Gestos e palavras: a Humanidade em construção (Gestures and words: Humanity under construction).

UNESCO Chairs Programme. “Information.” UNESCO Chairs Programme, (1992), accessed September 16, 2020,

UNESCO World Heritage Centre (WHC). “Sustainable Development.” UNESCO World Heritage Centre (WHC), (2017), accessed August 25, 2020, development/.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). “Cultural Landscapes.” World Heritage Convention (WHC), (1992), accessed September 8, 2020,

University of the Philippines – Diliman. “Landscape Architecture Curriculum.” UPD College of Architecture, (2018), accessed July 27, 2020,

University of San Agustin. “Landscape Architecture Curriculum.” University of San Agustin, (2016), accessed July 27, 2020,

University of San Carlos. “Landscape Architecture Curriculum.” Department of Architecture - University of San Carlos, (2017), accessed July 27, 2020, academic/department/23.

Yüksel, I. “Developing a multi-criteria decision-making model for PESTEL analysis.” International Journal of Business and Management, 7:24, 17, 2012.

Available Versions of this Item

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item



Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics